Wednesday, September 9, 2009
Conservation de textiles ex le tumba de Tutankhamon
(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)
Plure centos de pecias de tela de lino recuperate ex le tumba de Tutankhamon ha essite immagasinate pro 50 annos in le Museo Victoria e Albert in London. Illos include un roba ceremonial, quasi complete, portate certo per le Rege Puero non multe tempore post su nascentia, plus de 3.000 annos retro.
Il ha anque in le stato integre un chal e un charpa de lino de un qualitate sin exemplo previe. Secundo Linda Wolley, conservator de textiles antique al museo, le processos usate pro texer le drappo es nunc perdite. “Le egyptianos”, illa dice, “sapeva multo sur le lino que es incognite a nos”.
Il ha anque duo fragmentos de harnese de carro, facite de tapisseria--inter le plus antique exemplos del arte, e multo rar--e un pecia de tela colorate, guarnite de clavos de auro. On crede que isto es parte de un banda cinctural o de un banda de bracio.
Le resto del thesauro consiste de 15 cassettas de carton, plen de fragmentos e de rolos de lino. Iste stoffa, originalmente toto blanchite, ha nunc le color de mahagoni, o illo es quasi completemente nigre e multo fragile.
Le collection attingeva le Museo Victoria e Albert in 1933, 11 longe annos post le discoperta de illo per Sir Howard Carter inter le ricchessas del tumba de Tutankhamon, qui era le filio del rege Akhnaton, e qui governava Egypto durante le breve periodo de septe annos turbulente inter 1334 e 1327 a. Chr. Totevia, on debe memorar que on requireva 10 annos pro extraher tote le discopertas ex le tumba, durante qual tempore illos era immagazinate in un tumba vacue vicin. Tutankhamon habeva solo 16 annos quando ille moriva, e on crede que forsan ille esseva assassinate.
Le textiles in le Museo Victoria e Albert constitue solmente un minuscule parte del cosas discoperite in le tumba, nam quasi omne lo que remane es in le Museo de Cairo. Le sol exceptiones es le alimentos funerari rediscoperite recentemente a Kew e plure objectos retenite per le patrono del excavation, Lord Caernarvon, a su casa in Hampshire.
Un examination del roba ha monstrate que su creation ha requirite 3.000 horas--o 7 menses de dies de 11 horas. Secundo un marca de lavanderia sur le vestimento, illo era complite in le septime anno del regno del rege Akhnaton. Isto indica le data de 1343 a. Chr., le anno natal del Puero Rege.
Ben que le vestimento sembla esser facite pro un adulto--illo ha circa 1.500 mm de longitude e 900 mm de largor--le grandor del collo es adequate solo pro un infante. Illo era quasi sin dubita un cosa ceremonial, equivalente a un roba de baptismo.
Le roba, originalmente toto blanchite, ha nunc le color de pergamena, tintate per carbonisation e marcate per un substantia oleose que, on suppone, era utilisate in le ritos funebre intra le tumba. Illo es intacte, salvo le section que portava le marca de lavanderia, que era excidite per cisorios ante que le vestimento arrivava al Museo Victoria e Albert. Nemo sape ubi nunc es iste fragmento. Le sol prova de su existentia es un photographia in le archivo Carter al Instituto Griffith in Oxford.
Le lino del chal es tanto fin que le oculo nude pote a pena vider le filos. Carter lo describeva in le parolas “simile al musselina” quando illo era trovate; e, primo facite, illo era probabilemente quasi transparente. Anque illo ha le color de pergamena, de un brun clar, e illo es perforate con multe foramines de vermes. Illo ha anque frangias a duo bordos, e un grandor de circa 910 mm. In parte on lo ha lassate restar in le plicas que illo habeva quando illo esseva trovate.
Secundo Sheila Landi, conservator principal de textiles al museo, multe articulos era grandemente deteriorate ante que illos arrivava ibi e probabilemente ante que illos era removite ex le tumba, que habeva essite disturbate per robatores solmente alicun decennios post le morte de Tutankhamon. “Nulle deterioration es perceptible durante le ultime 20 annos”, Landi dice. “Io dubita an il habeva multe deterioration in le 30 annos previe. Le existentia de iste textiles non ha essite secrete pro le professionales de museo, ma quasi solmente le conservatores ha cognoscite lor ubication exacte.”
“Quando le Museo Britannic organisava le Exposition de Tutankhamon in le annos septante”, dice Linda Woolley, “le personal ibi non credeva que nos ha iste cosas hic.” Solo pauc personas ha vidite los post le deposito. Alicun cassas non ha essite aperite post le tempore de Howard Carter. “Alicunes del articulos se disintegra”, Woolley anque dice.”Illos se carbonisa rapidemente, e io mesme non volerea haber los in le manos.”
“Le momento quando nos disturba un de istos nos initia tote un multitude de problemas”, diceva Landi. “Nos ha necessitate de saper ubi nos va poner lo, le optime maniera de conservar lo pro retardar le deterioration, e nos ha necessitate de trovar un persona preste pro tractar lo.”
Le textiles es significante proque illos pote indicar le natura del ceremonias del vita egyptian. Un alte proportion del pannos funerari trovate in altere excavationes, per exemplo, esseva al reverso, indicante un symbolismo deliberate.
(Per Geraint Smith ex le “Daily Telegraph”, traducite in interlingua per Brian Sexton, publicate in “Panorama”, No. 6, novembre-decembre 1988 e republicate in “Interlingua in interlingua”)
Several hundred pieces of linen cloth recovered from the tomb of Tutahkhamon have been stored for fifty years in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. They include an almost complete ceremonial robe that was certainly worn by the boy king not long after his birth, more than 3,000 years ago.
There is also an entire linen shawl and a sash of unprecedented quality. According to Linda Woolley, the curator of antique textiles at the museum, the processes used to weave the cloth are now lost. “The Egyptians,” she says, “knew a lot about linen that is unknown to us.”
There are also two fragments of an upholstered chariot harness--among the oldest examples of the art, and very rare--a and a piece of colored cloth decorated with golden nails. This is believed to have been part of a waist or an armband.
The rest of the treasure consists of fifteen small cardboard boxes filled with fragments and very compact linen rolls. This cloth, originally completely bleached, now has the color of mahagony, or it is almost completely black and very fragile.
The collection reached the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1933, eleven long years after its discovery by Sir Howard Carter in the riches of the tomb of Tutankhamon, who was the son of the pharaoh Akhnaton, and who governed Egypt during the brief period seven turbulent years between 1334 and 1327 B.C. Still, it should be remembered that ten years were needed to remove everything discovered in the tomb, during which time they were stored in a vacant neighboring tomb. Tutankhamon was only sixteen years old when he died, and it is thought that he was possibly assassinated.
The textiles in the Victoria and Albert Museum are only a minuscule part of the things discovered in the tomb, for almost everything else is in the Cairo Museum. The only exception is the funerary food recently discovered in Kew and several objects retained by the patron of the excavation, Lord Caernarvon, at his home in Hampshire.
An examination of the robe has shown that creating it required 3,000 hours--or seven months of eleven-hour days. According to a laundry mark on the garment, it was finished in the seventh year of King Akhnaton’s reign. This indicates the date of 1343 B.C., the birth year of the Boy King.
Though the garment seems to be made for an adult--it is about 1,500 millimeters long and 900 milimeters thick--the collar is large enough only for an infant. It was almost without doubt a ceremonial thing, the equivalent of a baptismal robe.
The robe, originally completely bleached, now has the color of parchment, discolored by carbonization and marked by an oily substance that, it is supposed, was used in the funeral rites of the tomb. It is intact, except for the section that carried the laundry mark, which was cut off by scissors before the garment arrived at the Victoria and Albert Museum. No one knows where this fragment is now. The only proof of its existence is a photograph in the Carter archive at the Griffith Institute in Oxford.
The linen of the shawl is so fine that the naked eye can hardly see the threads. Carter described it as “similar to muslin” when it was found, and when it was first made it was probably almost transparent. It also has the color of clear brown parchment, and it is perforated by many worm holes. It also has fringes on two sides and a thickness of about 910 millimeters. In part it has been allowed to remain folded the way it was when it was found.
According to Sheila Landi, the principal curator of textiles at the museum, many articles were in a highly deteriorated state before they arrived there and probably even before they were removed from the tomb, which had been disturbed by robbers only a few decades after Tutankhamon’s death. “No deterioration is perceptible within the past twenty years. I doubt if there was much deterioration in the thirty previous years. The existence of these textiles has not been a secret to museum professionals, but only the curators have been aware of their exact location.”
“When the British Museum organized the Tutankhamon Exposition in the 1970s,” says Linda Woolley, “the personnel there did not believe that we had these things here.” Only a few people have seen them after they were deposited. Some boxes have not been opened since Howard Carter’s time. “Some of the articles are disintegrating,” Woolley also says. “They are carbonizing rapidly, and I myself would not put them into my own hands.”
“The moment we disturb one of these things we come up with a lot of problems,” said Landi. “We must know where we are going to put it, the best way to conserve it to retard deterioration, and we have to find a person willing to treat it.”
The textiles are significant because they can indicate the nature of the ceremonies in Egyptian life. A large number of the funeral diapers were inside out, indicating some deliberate symbolism.
(By Geraint Smith, from the “Daily Telegraph,” translated into Interlingua by Brian Sexton, published in “Panorama,” No. 6, November-December, 1988 and republished in “Interlingua in interlingua”)
Posted by hkyson at 1:41 PM