Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Parte 1, Le education

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

Iste documentos narra un breve historia del education desde nostre prehistoria usque Locke e Rousseau explorante iste questiones:

(A) Proque establi nos scholas e los financia?

(B) Es le scopo fundamental del education le production de citatanos obediente in un stato totalarian o un stato democratic (Statos "democratic" sovente es de-facto oligarchic, como le Statos Unite.)

(C) Esque le religion debe dominar le scholas?

(D) Que debemos inseniar in nostre scholas?


Le contento de iste documentos se divide in 10 partes:

(1) Introduction (2) Le education e le prime philosophos grec (3) Le education e Socrates, Platone, e Aristoteles (4) Le philosophia de education inter le romanos (5) Sancte Benedicto e le vita monastic (6) Le education in le epocha medieval e le renascentia (7) Martin Luther e le reformation protestante (8) Le ideas de Bacon e Hobbes (9) Le philosophia de education de Comenius (10) Locke e Rousseau


(1) Introduction

Nos es animales qui sempre ha apprendite post que nostre specie emergeva sur le superficie de nostre planeta. Evidentia del archaeologia indica que mesmo nostre ancestres qui chassava animales e colligeva plantas pro sustener se habeva systemas simple de education. In ille epocha, le major parte de lo que un infante o un puero o puera apprendeva veniva informalmente de su patres o altere membros del prime tribos organisate per le humanitate. Lor juvenes apprendeva a piscar, pro exemplo, a preparar e a preservar lor nutrimentos, e luctar contra lor inimicos.

Ma con le tempore nostre culturas deveniva plus complicate, e il esseva impossibile apprender multe cosas essential per iste methodo informal. Gradualmente, le homines plus vetule de nostre tribos plus grande comenciava a instruer le juvenes de lor gruppo in le traditiones, costumes, e systemas mythologic de lor culturas.

Ritos de initiation emergeva pro le juvenes del tribo in lor pubertate. Sovente pro qualificar como membros del tribo, gruppos de juvenes esseva isolate e submittite a un serie de tormentos, sia blande, sia plus sever, le quales sovente includeva le uso de stupefacientes o ingestion de drogas hallucinogenic extrahite de plantas que cresceva in le territorio del tribo. Le major parte del juvenes superviveva iste initationes proque si illos esseva troppo sever, le tribo eventualmente perderea multo de su population.

Post le ritos de initiation sovente veniva un programma breve de instruction sur le mythologia del tribo. Durante que le cultura del tribo deveniva plus complicate, alicunes de su membros se dedicava a apprender le detalios de lor traditiones tribal e a inseniar los plus systematicamente al juvenes del tribo. Con le tempore, locos special emergeva pro iste activitates de instruction. Istos esseva nostre prime "scholas".

Assatis sovente, iste scholas deveniva templos proque le major parte del traditiones, costumes, e manieras de viver habeva ligamines assatis directe con le religion del tribo. Assi, le culto del deos del tribos deveniva de plus in plus le centro del education del tribo, e gradualmente emergeva un equivalentia inter instructores e prestres.

Le hebreos ancian revela iste facto multo clarmente. Lor synagogas deveniva lor scholas e lor instructores esseva rabbines. Naturalmente iste systema de education habeva su aspectos practic, ma le fontes principal del instruction de iste schoolas esseva le scripturas religiose del hebreos e le diverse commentarios sur illos que eventualmente emergeva.

Con le tempore philosophos nonreligiose comenciava a occupar se con problemas de education--specialmente con relationes inter le education e le vita practic e con methodos de instruction efficace.

Il es facile comprender iste disveloppamento pedagogic. Si un philosopho credeva que un certe cosa esseva ver, su proxime preoccupation esserea como trovar strategias utile pro persuader su studentes juvene que lo que ille inseniava esseva ver, e le education deveniva etiam plus complicate e formal.

(2) Le prime philosophos grec e le education:

Inter le grecos, le sophistas esseva individualistas. Illes credeva que lor studentes debe apprender como manipular efficacemente le diverse obstaculos presentate per lor cultura.

Illes advocava un systema de education que promoverea le felicitate e le prosperitate pro lor studentes, qui apprendeva le leges de Athenas e le litteratura grec scribite usque tunc, de maniera que illos poteva extraher ex omne iste obras exemplos que fortificarea lor argumentos.

Le grecos dedicava multe tempore al oratoria e al manipulation del opinion public, e le studentes del sophistas apprendeva tal technicas como studentes del commercio moderne apprende in lor scholas como manipular le desiros del publico de maniera que su membros minus sophisticate comprara le productos del companias que les emplea.

Le education del sophistas esseva multo detaliate, e lor studentes apprendeva a construer argumentos logic e anque argumentos que solmente pareva irresistibilemente logic. Illes anque apprendeva a dominar le technicas del oratoria pro presentar iste argumentos efficacemente.

Le sophistas se promenava per omne le partes de Athenas e offereva lor instruction a cambio de moneta. Illes insisteva que lor studentes eventualmente dominarea completemente le technicas necesse pro succeso in le vita public de lor citate. Alicunes de illes deveniva multo ric post que lor studentes anque deveniva ric, e lor reputationes attraheva numeros plus grande de studentes qui poteva comprar lor instruction a precios plus alte.

Protagoras, un sophista famose con multe talento, diceva a su studentes, "Si vos veni con me, vos essera homines multo melior cata die que vos retorna a vostre focares."

Melior? Possibilemente. Ma in que senso del parola?


(1) Introduction

We are animals who have always learned after our species emerged on the surface of our planet. Evidence from archeology indicates that even our ancestors who hunted animals and gathered plants to sustain themselves had simple systems of education. At that time most of what an infant or a boy or girl learned came informally from their parents or other members of the first tribes organized by humanity. Their youth learned how to fish, for example, how to prepare and preserve their food, and how to fight their enemies.

But in time our cultures became more complicated, and it was impossible to learn many essential things through this informal method. Gradually, the older men of our larger tribes started to teach the young people of their group about the traditions, customs, and mythological systems of their cultures.

Initiation rites emerged for the youth of the tribe in their puberty. Fairly often, to qualify as a member of the tribe, groups of the young were isolated and submitted to a series of torments, whether light or more severe ones, which often included the use of stupefying or hallucinogenic drugs extracted from the plants that grew in the tribe's territory. Most of the youth survived these initiations because if they were too severe, the tribe would eventually lose much of its population.

After the rites of initiation often came a brief program of instruction about the mythology of the tribe. As the culture of the tribe became more complicated, some of its members dedicated themselves to learning the details of their tribal traditions and teaching them more systematically to the youth of the tribe. In time, special places emerged for these teaching activities. These were our first "schools."

Often these schools became temples because most of the traditions, customs, and ways of living had rather direct links with the religion of the tribe. Thus, worshiping the gods of the tribes increasingly became the center of education for the tribe, and gradually priests and teachers became one and the same thing.

The ancient Hebrews reveal this fact very clearly. Their synagogues became their schools, and their instructors were rabbis. Naturally, this system of education had its practical aspects, but the principal sources of instruction in/for these schools was the religious scriptures of the Hebrews and the various commentaries on them that eventually emerged.

In time, nonreligious philosophers started to concern themselves with educational problems--especially with the relationships between education and practical life and with effective methods of instruction.

It is easy to understand this pedagogical development. If a philosopher believed that a certain thing was true, his next concern would be how to find useful strategies for persuading his students that what he wanted to teach was true, and education became even more complicated and formal.

(2) Education and the first Greek Philosophers.

Among the Greeks, the sophists were individualists. They believed that their students should learn how to efficiently manipulate the various obstacles presented by their culture.

They advocated a system of education that would promise happiness and prosperity for their students, who learned the laws of Athens and the Greek literature written up to then so that they could extract from all these works examples that would strengthen their arguments.

The Greeks dedicated a lot of time to oratory and to the manipulation of public opinion, and the sophists' students learned such techniques the way modern business students learn in their schools to manipulate the desires of the public so that its less sophisticated members will buy the products of the companies that employ them.

The education of the sophists was very detailed, and their students learned to construct logical arguments and also arguments that only seemed to be irresistibly logical. They also learned to dominate the oratorical techniques to present these arguments effectively.

The sophists walked through all parts of Athens and offered their instruction for a price. They insisted that their students would eventually control completely the techniques needed for success in the public life of their city. Some of them became very rich after their students also became rich, and their reputations attracted larger numbers of students who could buy their instruction at higher prices.

Protagoras, a famous sophist with a lot of talent, said to his students, "If you come with me, you will be much better men each day that you return to your homes."

Better? Possibly. But in what sense of the word?

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