Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Parte 2, Notas sur le architectura syntactic de interlingua e del anglese

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

(Un version previe de iste information anque se presenta in "Interlingua in interlingua" [Curso], Capitulos 6, 7, 8, 9, e 10.)


Syntagmas propositional:

Un proposition ha un syntagma nominal (generalmente un nomine o un pronomine) e un syntagma verbal que indica tempore grammatic. Il ha differente tipos de propositiones secundo lor functiones syntactic e semantic.

In un conversation o un dialogo, gruppos de participantes sovente usa questiones e responsas (Ubi va Roberto? Al cinema), que pote combinar se in propositiones; e in le linguage scribite, le syntagma le plus frequente es le proposition que combina le contento de questiones e responsas (Roberto va al cinema). Sovente il es utile usar questiones e responsas assatis simple pro clarificar como lor syntagmas contribue al structura final de un proposition plus complicate.

Nos nunc va discuter le tipos de propositiones le plus fundamental:

Propositiones que indica actiones:

Ecce le formas le plus frequente de iste propositiones: (1) Ille parti. (2) Johano consola Maria.

Propositiones que classifica:

Iste propositiones usa principalmente le verbo "esser" e un nomine o un adjectivo, ben que il es anque possibile usar altere verbos, como "devenir" e "semblar", con functiones simile.

Sovente il es possibile identificar un nomine con le question "Que es illo?" Ecce alicun exemplos: (1) Que es illo? Un libro. --> Illo es un libro. (2) Que es illo? Un computator. --> Illo es un computator. (3) Que es illo? Un tabula. --> Illo es un tabula.

Un adjectivo sovente es le responsa al question "Que tipo de xxxxx es illo? Ecce alicun exemplos: (1) Que tipo de libro es illo? Un bon libro. --> Illo es un bon libro. (2) Que tipo de libro es illo? Un libro grande. --> Illo es un libro grande. (3) Que tipo de libro es illo? Un libro utilissime. --> Illo es un libro utilissime.

Ben que on usa "esser" le plus sovente in propositiones que classifica, a vices il es possibile usar un parve gruppo de altere verbos, como "devenir" e "remaner", como in (1) Ille es le presidente. --> Ille deveniva le presidente. (2) Illo es utilissime. --> Illo deveniva utilissime. (3) Ille es le presidente. --> Ille remane le presidente. (4) Illo es utilissime. --> Illo remane utilissime.

Propositiones que indica actiones e que classifica:

Duo formas de propositiones minus frequente combina le action e le classification. Ecce duo exemplos:

(1) Illes le faceva lor presidente (in altere parolas, illes faceva alique; e a causa de lo que illes faceva, ille deveniva lor presidente).

(2) Illes lo faceva interessante (in altere parolas, illes faceva alique; e a causa de lo que illes faceva, un certe cosa esseva/deveniva interessante).

Forsan le poter principal del linguage scribite es su capacitate de definir plus strictemente le contento semantic de un syntagma nominal o verbal per le addition de altere syntagmas. Ma in le conversation il ha altere factores importante que indica, pro exemplo, emotiones, que on pote exprime con minus subtilitate in forma scribite. Il ha anque conversationes cuje scopos non es tanto communicar information como mantener relationes cordial.

(Hierarchias de classificationes que on pote formar con "esser" es simile a lo que le mathematicos studia in le theoria de gruppos quando illes classifica le relationes inter gruppos e subgruppos que forma parte de un "universo". Le membros de omne culturas del mundo usa iste capacitate pro nominar e definir lo que illes trova utile e importante.

(On anque debe adder que omne culturas face iste classificationes secundo normas a vices multo differente. Isto indica que si Platon habeva potite studiar lo que le anthropologos nunc studia, forsan ille nunquam haberea disveloppate su theoria de formas universal proque cosas que appare universal a un cultura pote esser completemente insignificante a un altere cultura e que realitates cultural sovente es completemente arbitrari.)


Prepositional Syntagms:

A sentence has a nominal syntagm (generally a noun or a pronoun) and a verbal syntagm that indicates grammatical tense. There are different types of sentences according to their syntactic and semantic functions.

In a conversation or a dialogue, groups of participants often use questions and answers (Where is Robert going? To the movies), which can be combined into sentences; and in written language, the most important syntagm is sentences that combine the content of questions and answers (Roberto is going to the movies). Often it is useful to use rather simple questions and answers to clarify how their syntagms contribute to the final structure of a more complicated sentence.

We are now going to discuss the most fundamental types of sententences:

Sentences that indicate actions:

Here are the most frequent forms of these sentences: (1) He is leaving. (2) John is consoling Maria.

Sentences that classify:

These sentences principally use the verb "to be" and a noun or an adjective, though it is also possible to use other verbs, like "to become" and "to seem," with similar functions.

Often it is possible to identify a noun with the question "What is it?" Here are some examples: (1) What is it? A book. --> It is a book. (2) What is it? A computer. --> It is a computer. (3) What is it? A table. --> It is a table.

An adjective often is the response to the question "What kind of xxxxx is it? Here are some examples: (1) What kind of book is it? A good book. --> It is a good book. (2) What kind of book is it? A big book. --> It is a big book. (3) What kind of book is it? A very useful book. --> It is a very useful book.

Though the verb "to be" is used most often in sentences that classify, at times it is possible to use other verbs, such as "to become" and "to remain," as in (1) He is the president. --> He became the president. (2) It is very useful. --> It became very useful. (3) He is the president. --> He remains the president. (4) It is very useful. --> It remains very useful.

Sentences that indicate actions and that classify:

Two forms of less frequent sentences combine action and classification. Here are two examples:

(1) They made him their president (in other words, they did something; and because of what they did, he became their president).

(2) They made it interesting (in other words, they did something; and because of what they did a certain thing was/became interesting).

Perhaps the principal power of written language is its capacity to define more strictly the semantic content of a nominal or verbal syntagm by the addition of other syntagms. But in conversation there are other important factors that indicate, for example, emotions, which can be expressed with less subtlety in writing. There are also conversations whose purposes are not so much to communicate information as to maintain cordial relations.

(Hierarchies of classifications that can be formed with "to be" are similar to what mathematicians study in group theory when they classify the relations among groups and subgroups that form part of a "universe." The members of all the world's cultures use this capacity to name and define what they find useful and important.

(It should also be added that all cultures make these classifications according to norms that are at times very different. This indicates that if Plato had been able to study what anthropologists now study, perhaps he never would have developed his theory of forms because things that appear to be universal to one culture can be completely insignificant to another culture and that cultural realities are often completely arbitrary.)

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