Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Parte 1, Notas sur le architectura syntactic de interlingua e del anglese

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

(Un version previe de iste information anque se presenta in "Interlingua in interlingua" [Curso], Capitulos 6, 7, 8, 9, e 10.)


Introduction a qualque parolas utile pro describer le syntaxe de linguas como interlingua e anglese:

Como le componente morphologic del grammaticas de interlingua e anglese (i.e., le numero de desinentias in su nomines, pronomines, verbos, e adjectivos), es multo reducite, le parte syntactic ha le principal onere de communication in le uso de iste linguas.

Pro exemplo, le declaration "Le historia europee in le seculo vinti presenta un stranie mixtura de progresso e barbaritate" ha duo partes principal, (1) "Le historia europee in le seculo vinti e (2) "presenta un stranie mixtura de progresso e barbaritate". Le prime parte anque ha duo partes principal: (1) "le historia europee" e (2) "in le seculo vinti”.

Le secunde parte anque ha duo partes principal, (1) "presenta" e (2) "un stranie mixtura de progresso e barbaritate". Il es anque possibile divider iste partes a in componentes plus parve usque on arriva al ultime componentes, le parolas (o, plus exactemente, le parolas e lor componentes).

Comenciante con le publication del "Curso de linguistica general" de Ferdinand de Saussure in 1916 (mille nove centos dece sex), qualque linguistas ha date le nomine "syntagama" al structuras grammatic parve e grande que functiona como componentes in le architectura hierarchic del linguage.

Le systema syntactic de interlingua es multo simile al systemas de su linguas fonte moderne: le anglese, le francese, le italiano, e le espaniol/portugese. In iste presentation nos va a examinar systematicamente le componentes syntactic que forsan es le plus utile e le plus frequente de interlingua, comenciante con le plus simple inter illos e progressante a structuras plus complicate.

A iste puncto nos va examiner le syntagma "ille canta". Generalmente on nomina un tal syntagma un "proposition". Le proposition "ille canta" consiste de duo syntagmas, un pronomine e un verbo que in interlingua non ha -r, -te, o -nte como su ultime parte. Le proposition "Le homine canta" anque ha duo syntagmas. Le prime es un syntagma nominal, cuje parte central es un nomine, "homine".

"Al homine" es anque un syntagma, cognoscite como un "syntagma prepositional". Un altere syntagma importante es "quando le homine canta", cognoscite como un syntagma propositional subordinate, o, plus simplemente, un proposition subordinate.

Le proposition "Quando ille homine canta, io es multo felice" es anque un syntagma propositional cuje partes principal es un syntagma adverbial de tempore introducite per "quando" e le proposition principal, "io es multo felice".

Iste exemplos illustra como le syntaxe de interlingua e anglese construe propositiones grande con syntagmas minus grande cuje componentes es syntagmas mesmo minus grande, omnes formante un structura architectural hierarchic.

Ben que hierarchias de syntagmas pote extender se infinitemente in le construction de un proposition, ultra un certe puncto considerationes practic de communication limita lor complexitate; e si on vole communicar clarmente, il es melior limitar se a hierarchias bastante simple.


Introduction to some useful words for describing the syntax of languages like Interlingua and English:

Since the morphological component of the grammars of Interlingua and English (i.e., the number of endings in its nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adjectives) is highly reduced, the syntactic part of their grammars bears the principal burden of communication in the use of these languages.

For example, the statement "European history in the twentieth century presents a strange mixture of progress and barbarity" has two principal parts, (1) "European history in the twentieth century" and (2) "presents a strange mixture of progress and barbarity." The first part also has two principal parts: (1) "European history" and (2) "in the twentieth century."

The second part also has two principal parts, (1) "presents" and (2) "a strange mixture of progress and barbarity." It is also possible to divide these parts into smaller components until we arrive at the ultimate components, words (or, more exactly, words and their components).

Starting with the publication of Ferdinand de Saussure's "Course in General Linguistics" in 1916 (nineteen sixteen), some linguists have given the name "syntagm" (pronounced SINtam) to the small and large grammatical structures that function as components in the hierarchical architecture of language.

The syntactic system of Interlingua is very similar to the systems of its modern source languages: English, French, Italian, and Spanish/Portuguese. In this presentation we are going to systematically examine the syntactic components that perhaps are the most useful and the most frequent in Interlingua, starting with the most simple among them and progressing to more complicated structures.

At this point we are going to examine the syntagm "he sings." Generally such a syntagm is called a "sentence." The sentence "he sings" consists of two syntagms, a pronoun and a verb that in Interlingua does not have -r, -te, or -nte as its final part. The sentence "The man sings" also has two syntagms. The first is a nominal syntagm, whose central part is a noun, "man."

"To the man" is also a syntagm, known as a "prepositional syntagm," or prepositional phrase. Another important syntagm is "when the man sings," known as a subordinate propositional syntagm, or, more simply, a subordinate clause.

The sentence "When that man sings, I am very happy" is also a propositional syntagm (sentence) whose principal parts are an adverbial syntagm (or subordinate clause) expressing time introduced by "when" and the principal clause, "I am very happy."

These examples illustrate how the syntax of Interlingua and English construct large sentences with smaller syntagms whose components are even smaller syntagms, all forming a hierarchic architectural structure.

Though hierarchies of syntagms can be extended infinitely in the construction of a sentence, beyond a certain point practical considerations of communication limit their complexity; and if you to communicate clearly, it is better to limit yourself to rather simple hierarchies.

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