Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Parte 4, Notas sur le architectura syntactic de interlingua e del anglese

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

(Un version previe de iste information anque se presenta in "Interlingua in interlingua" [Curso], Capitulos 6, 7, 8, 9, e 10.)


Le elaboration de syntagmas verbal con verbos auxiliar e modal:

Il es possibile elaborar un syntagma verbal con le verbo "haber" e verbos con terminationes in -ate e -ite: (Ille parti. Ille ha partite. Ille partiva. Ille habeva partite. Ille partira. Ille habera partite.)

Il es anque possibile associar iste tipo de syntagmas con questiones que on pote contestar con "si" o "no" o con expressiones como "possibilemente":

(a) Esque ille parti? Si. --> Si, ille parte.

(b) Esque ille ha partite? No. --> No, ille non ha partite.

(c) Es il ver que ille habeva partite ante un mense? Si. --> (Si, ante un mense ille habeva partite)/(Si, ille habeva partite ante un mense).

(d) Esque vos crede que ille habera partite ante que on comenciara le proxime conferentia? Possibilemente. --> Possibilemente ille habera partite ante que comenciara le proxime conferentia.

Verbos modal exprime conceptos como le obligation, le possibilitate, o le volition. Le plus sovente, illes applica iste conceptos al infinitivo que los seque. Le verbos modal le plus frequente es "deber", "poter", "saper", e "voler": (Ille parti. Ille debe partir. Ille pote partir. Ille sape partir. Ille vole partir.)

Usque nunc nos ha explorate como syntagmas adverbial pote explicar plus precisemente propositiones con diverse formas de "partir". Nos jam ha notate que "partir" es le tipo de verbo que indica un action que non involve un altere cosa o persona. On dice sovente que tal propositiones es "intransitive".

Nunc nos va a explorar propositiones como "Johano consola Maria". On dice sovente que iste tipo de proposition es "transitive" proque le action del verbo de alicun manera "i" (ex "ir") o "va" (ex "vader") de alicun forma del prime syntagma nominal al secunde.

Il anque es possibile associar propositiones transitive con questiones como istes: (a) Que face Johano? Ille consola Maria. (b) Que face Roberto? Ille observa le turre.

Anque il es possibile suggerer le identitate de un secunde syntagma nominal con le uso de "qui", si es un persona, o "que", si es un cosa:

(a) Johano, qui consola ille? Maria. --> Ille consola Maria.

(b) Que observa Roberto? Le turre. --> Ille observa le turre.

Le syntagma nominal que comencia con qui/que in iste questiones pote nominar se de diverse manieras. In iste presentation nos va nominar lo un "complemento directe".


The elaboration of verbal syntagms with auxiliary and modal verbs:

It is possible to elaborate a verbal syntagm with the verb "to have" and past participles in English (He [leaves]/[is leaving]. He has left. He [left]/[was leaving]. He will leave. He will have left.)

It is also possible to associate these kinds of syntagms with questions that can be answered with "yes" or "no" or with expressions like "possibly/perhaps":

(a) Is he leaving? Yes. --> Yes he is leaving.

(b) Has he left? No. --> No, he has not left.

(c) Is it true that he had left a month ago? Yes. --> (Yes, a month ago he left)/(Yes, he had left a month ago).

(d) Do you think that he will have left before the next conference will start up? Possibly. --> Possibly he will have left before the next conference will start up.

Modal verbs express concepts like obligation, possibility, or volition. Most often, they apply these concepts to the infinitive that follows them. The most frequent modal verbs are "ought," "to be able," "to know how to," and "to want": (He is leaving. He [ought to]/[should leave]. He [must]/[has to]/[has got to] leave. He can leave. He knows how to leave. He wants to leave.)

Up to now we have explored how adverbial syntagms can explain more exactly sentences with various forms of "to leave." We have already noted that "to leave" is the kind of verb that indicates an action that does not involve another person or thing. It is often said that such sentences are "intransitive."

We are now going to explore sentences like "John consoles Maria." It is often said that this kind of sentence is "transitive" because the action of the verb in some way "goes" in some way from the first noun phrase to the second one.

It is also possible to associate transitive sentences with questions like these: (a) What is Johano doing? He is consoling Maria. (b) What is Robert doing? He is observing the tower.

It is also possible to suggest the identity of a second noun phrase with the use of "who," if it is a person, or "what" if it is a thing:

(a) John, who is he consoling? Maria. --> (He is)/(He's) consoling Maria.

(b) What is Robert observing? The tower. --> (He is)/(He's) observing the tower.

The nominal syntagm that starts with who/what in these questions can be called various things. In this presentation we are going to call it a "direct object."

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