Monday, February 9, 2009

Parte 2, Notas sur le anglese

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

Le proxime "seismo" que cambiava le anglese veniva in 1066 (mille sexanta e sex), quando le descendentes del vikingos de Normandie, in Francia, invadeva Anglaterra. Iste gente habeva oblidate le lingua germanic de lor ancestres e parlava le francese, ma un varietate del francese assatis differente del francese de Paris.

Illes introduceva al anglese al minus 7.500 (septe mille cinque centos) parolas. Anglophonos ordinari qui non ha studiate le linguistica o altere linguas trovara completemente natural le parolas introducite al anglese per iste descendentes francese del vikingos que antea habeva invadite Francia durante que altere gruppos de illes se establiva in Anglaterra.

(William of Normandie e su descendentes nos dava "air", "coast", "debt", "face", "flower", "joy", "people", "river", "sign", "blue", "clear", "easy", "large", "mean", "nice", "poor", "carry", "change", "cry", "move", "push", "save", "trip", "wait", "chair", "lamp", "pain", "stomach", "fool", "music", "park", "beef", "stew", "toast", "spy", "faith", "bar", "jail", "tax", e "fry".)

Post le invasion del franceses de Normandie, durante le Renascimento, veniva a in le anglese parolas directemente del latino, como "client", "legal", "scene", "intellect", "recipe", "pulpit", "exclude", "necessary", "tolerance", "interest", e altere parolas simile.

Omne isto significa que un version del anglese que haberea evolvite sin iste invasiones lexic esserea completemente peculiar e incomprehensible a angleses e americanos contemporanee. "Beautiful people" esserea "sciene leode" in vice del parolas francese que se usa iste dies. "Conscience" esserea "inwit" (cognoscimentos intra alique), e un succession esserea "æftergengness", o sia "aftergoing".

Pro angloparlantes qui non ha studiate le philologia o altere linguas, nostre parolas componite es opac, e multes ex nos non sape que parolas como "conscience", pro exemplo, consiste de "con" e "scientia". Ma pro un romano del epocha classic, le partes de "conscientia" in latino esserea tan transparente como "leanness" es pro un anglophono contemporanee.

Le germanos es plus fortunate. In vice de "conscience" illes ha "Gewissen". "Wissen" significa "saper", e "ge-" converte "wissen" muy obviemente al nomine "Gewissen". "Succession" in germano es "Reihenfolge". Si le anglese esseva tan "germanic" como le germano, iste parola esserea "row following"--multo facile de analysar.

Naturalmente, trans le annos, cambios semantic ha assecurate que multe parolas german nunc non es tan facile a analysar. Ma mesmo le significationes de iste parolas minus obvie es plus facile a analysar pro le germanos que "commit" es pro un anglese qui non ha studiate le latino.


The next "earthquake" that changed English came in 1066 (ten sixty-six), when the descendants of the Vikings of Normandie, in France, invaded England. These people had forgotten the Germanic language of their ancestors and spoke French, but a variety of French rather different from the French of Paris.

They introduced into English at least 7,500 (seven thousand five hundred) words. Ordinary English speakers who have not studied linguistics and other languages will find completely natural the words introduced into English by these French descendants of the Vikings that had formerly invaded France while other groups of them were establishing themselves in England.

(William of Normandie and his descendants gave us "air," "coast," "debt," "face," "flower," "joy," "people," "river," sign," "blue," "clear," "easy," "large," "mean," "nice," "poor," "carry," "change," "cry," "move," "push," "save," "trip," "wait," "chair," "lamp," "pain," "stomach," "fool," "music," "park," "beef," "stew," "toast," "spy," "faith," "bar," "jail," "tax," and "fry.")

After the invasion of the Norman French, during the Renaissance, words came into English directly from Latin, such as "client," "legal," "scene," "intellect," "recipe," "pulpit," "exclude," "necessary," "tolerance," "interest," and others.

All this means that a version of English that would have evolved without these lexical invasions would be completely peculiar and incomprehensible to contemporary Englishmen and Americans. "Beautiful people" would be "sciene leode" instead of the French words that are used these days. "Conscience" would be "inwit," and a succession would be "æftergengness," in other words, "aftergoing."

For English speakers who have not studied philology or other languages, our compound words are opaque, and many of us do not know that words like "conscience," for example, consist of "con" and "scientia." But for a Roman of the classical era, the parts of "conscientia" in Latin would be as transparent as "leanness" is for contemporary English speakers.

Germans are more fortunate. Instead of "conscience" they have "Gewissen." "Wissen" means "to know," and "ge-" converts "wissen" very obviously to the noun "Gewissen." "Succession in German is "Reihenfolge." If English were as "Germanic" as German, this would would be "row following"--very easy to analyze.

Naturally, through the years semantic changes have assured that many German words are now not as easy to analyze. But even the meanings of these less obvious words are more easy to analyze for Germans than "commit" is for an Englishman who has not studied Latin.

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