Monday, February 9, 2009

Parte 3, Notas sur le anglese

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

Le presentia in nostre lingua de tante parolas de altere linguas a vices es utile pro angleses e americanos qui comencia le studio de altere linguas. Il ha tante parolas del francese e del latino in le lexico del anglese que nos le anglophonos pote apprender le francese e le latino un pauco plus facilemente que le parlatores de multe altere linguas.

Iste avantage es specialmente obvie in le caso del vocabulario formal e docte de iste linguas. Le parolas anglese "adjudicate" e "anatomy", pro exemplo, es multo simile al parolas latin "adjudicare" e "anatomia".

Le franceses de Normandie habeva un influentia importante in areas cultural prestigiose como le governamento, le jure, e le artes. Assi, hodie nos ha parolas como "pork", pro le carne de porco preparate pro esser mangiate, ma "pig" e "swine" pro le animales porcin. In vice de "pork", le germanos dice "Schweinefleisch". Si le anglese esseva un pauco plus germanic e un pauco minus francese, nos mesmes dicerea "swineflesh".

Pro anglophonos qui studia le francese, le parte le plus difficile de su vocabulario appare in le phase initial de lor studios. Le parolas anglese "bread", "water", e "fish" non suggere lor formas francese, "pain", "eau", e "poisson", respectivemente.

Ma post apprender iste vocabulario commun, nos pote leger un texto assatis simple in un jornal sin multe difficultate proque parolas como "association", "opportunité", e "présent" es completemente transparente pro nos. Il es interessante notar que multe studentes in Russia vole studiar le latino proque su vocabulario es multo utile pro illes quando illes comencia le studio del anglese.

Infelicemente, le vocabulario romanic del anglese pone barrieras al studio de germano. Americanos qui ha studiate le espaniol pro un periodo de, que nos dice, duo annos, trova que illes pote leger assatis facilemente un jornal in espaniol.

Ma post un periodo de tempore simile de studiar le germano, nos ha difficultates con articulos in publicationes como "Die Welt". Mesmo si nos pote dominar le germano conversational post viver un anno in Germania, nos ha difficultates con articulos in publicationes como "Der Spiegel" o "Stern" proque le vocabulario formal del anglese es de origine romanic in vice de germanic.

Parolas como "Brot", "Wasser", e "Fisch" es multo simile a "Bread", "Water", and "Fish", ma parolas como "Verband", "Gegenwart", e "Gelangenheit" es completemente opac a anglophonos le prime vice que illes los trova in un texto.

A causa de nostre vocabulario mixte, il non ha altere linguas que nos pote apprender tan facilemente como un italiano pote apprender le espaniol o le portugese o como un danese pote apprender le svedese o le norvegiano. Iste tres linguas es tan simile que si Danmark, Svedia, e Norvega esseva politicamente unite in un sol pais, il haberea solmente un sol forma scribite del scandinavo continental, como vos pote vider si vos examina attentemente le versiones in iste tres linguas scandinave in mi exercitios de traduction electronic.

De un maniera simile, Zulu e Xhosa in Sud Africa es simile. Le hollandese e le germano es solmente un pauco plus differente que iste duo linguas african. Le serbos e le bulgarianos pote communicar inter se con un pauco de effortio. E pro multe personas in omne le partes del mundo, il ha linguas cuje maestria esserea esentialmente un processo de accostumar se a un nove version de lor linguas native, e un persona qui parla hindi, pro exemplo, poterea apprender Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali, e un varietate de altere linguas de India multo facilemente.

Pro nos, le anglophonos, un tal experientia es impossibile.


The presence in English of so many words from other languages is useful at times for Englishmen and Americans who are starting the study of other languages. There are so many words from French and Latin in the lexicon of English that we English speakers can learn French and Latin a little more easily than the speakers of many other languages.

This advantage is especially obvious in the case of the formal and educated vocabulary of these languages. The English words "adjudicate" and "anatomy," for example, are very similar to the Latin words "adjudicare" and "anatomia."

The Norman French had an important influence in prestigious cultural areas such as government, law, and the arts. Thus, today we have words like "pork," for meat from porcine animals prepared to be eaten, but "pig" and "swine" for the animals themselves. Instead of "pork" Germans say "Schweinfleisch." If English were a little more Germanic and a little less French, we ourselves would say "swineflesh."

For English speakers who study French, the most difficult part of its vocabulary appears in the initial phase of their studies. The words "bread," "water," and "fish" do not suggest their French forms, "pain," "eau," and "poisson," respectively.

But after learning this common vocabulary, we can read a rather easy text in a newspaper without much difficulty because words like "association," "opportunité," and "présent" are completely transparent to us. It is interesting to note that many students in Russia want to study Latin because its vocabulary is very useful for them when they start the study of English.

Unfortunately, the Romance vocabulary of English erects barriers to the study of German. Americans who have studied Spanish for a period of, let's say, two years find that they can read a Spanish newspaper rather easily.

But after a similar period of time studying German, we have difficulties with articles in publications like "Die Welt." Even if we can dominate conversational German after living for a year in Germany, we have difficulties with articles in publications such as "Der Spiegel" or "Stern" because the formal vocabulary in English is of Romance instead of Germanic origin.

Words such as "Brot," "Wasser," and "Fisch" are very similar to "bread," "water," and "fish," but words like "Verband," "Gegenwart," and "Gelangenheit" are completely opaque to English speakers the first time they find them in a text.

Because of our mixed vocabulary, there are no other languages that we can learn as easily as an Italian can learn Spanish or Portuguese or as a Dane can learn Swedish or Norwegian. These three languages are so similar that if Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were politically united in a single country, there would be only a single written form of continental Scandinavian, as you can see if you carefully examine the versions of these three languages in my electronic translation exercises.

In a similar way, Zulu and Xhosa in South Africa are similar. Dutch and German are only a little more different than these two African languages. The Serbs and the Bulgarians can communicate among themselves with a little effort. And for many people everywhere in the world, there are languages whose mastery would be essentially a process of getting used to a new version of their native languages, and a person who speaks Hindi, for example, would be able to learn quite easily Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali, and a variety of other languages in India.

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