Thursday, February 5, 2009

Majusculas, nomines, e ambguitates syntactic in anglese

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English, Latin)

Un regula del orthographia del germano es que omne nomines debe comenciar con un littera majuscula. Iste regula vermente non es necesse in germano proque quasi sempre il es facile distinguer inter nomines e verbos secundo lor formas.

Ma in anglese multe parolas del mesme forma pote esser o nomines o verbos. Ecce un exemplo que io videva recentemente in un jornal american: "Myanmar forces fire." In su forma scribite, le syntaxe de iste asseveration es ambigue.

On pote decifrar iste asseveration de duo manieras: "(Myanmar) (forces fire)" o "(Myanmar forces) (fire)". Tal confusion poterea eliminar se facilmente si, secundo le regulas de orthographia anglese, nomines sempre debe comenciar con un majuscula como in germano: "Myamar Forces fire" o "Myanmar forces Fire".


Capital letters, Nouns, and Syntacgical Ambiguities in English

One rule of German spelling is that all nouns must begin with a capital letter. This rule is really not necessary in German because almost always it is easy to distinguish between nouns and verbs according to their forms.

But in English many words with the same form can be either nouns or verbs. Here is an example that I saw recently in an American newspaper: "Myanmar forces fire." In its written form, the syntax of this sentence is ambiguous.

This statement can be deciphered in two ways: "(Myanmar) (forces fire)" or "(Myanmar forces) (fire)." Such confusion could be easily eliminated if, according to the rules of English spelling, nouns should always begin with a capital letter as in German: "Myanmar Forces fire" or "Myanmar forces Fire."


Ecce un exemplo de un texto in anglese con le nomines con majausculas initial:

The Values of Friendship

The Values of Friendship are varied and multiple. It can furnish many Pretexts for Offense and Superstition, which a wise Man should avoid or lighten, at Times, or maybe even even tolerate.

One Offense should be endured, if a Person is to retain usefulness and good Faith in Friendship; for Friends should often be warned and reproached, and these Things should be received in a friendly Spirit when done with Goodwill.

Truth is harmful if it engenders Hatred, which poisons Friendship. But Indulgence is even more damaging because tolerating Sins allows a Friend to fall into Ruin.

The biggest Fault of all, however, is found in someone who scorns the Truth and is driven by Indulgence into Fraud; so in all such Matters, a Person should exercise Reason and Diligence; and if there is a Warning, it will be without Bitterness.

Flattery, which encourages Vice, should be avoided to the Maximumm because it is not only unworthy of a Friend but also of a free Man, for a Person lives one way with a Dictator and another way with a Friend. One of Cato's Principles, along with many others, is really very good: "Enemies are more valuable than nice Friends because they often tell the Truth, while Friends never do."

And it is also absurd that those who are warned do not tolerate such Annoyance but hold onto Things they should avoid; for they have no Regrets about having done Wrong but because they have been warned about it. On the contrary, they should regret having done Wrong and take Pleasure when People correct them.


Le usos del amicitate

Le usos del amicitate es variate e multiple, le qual pote dar multe causas de suspiciones e offensas, le quales un homine prudente a vices debe evitar o alleviar o mesmo suffrer.

On debe tolerar un offensa, si on vole retiner le utilitate e le fide del amicitate; nam sovente on debe prevenir e reprochar un amico, e iste cosas on debe reciper in un spirito amical quando illos se face con/de bon voluntate.

Le veritate es nocive si ex illo nasce le odio, que es le veneno del amicitate. Ma le indulgentia is multo plus damnose, proque tolerar peccatos permitte que un amico cade a in le ruina.

Le falta le plus grande tamen se trova in un persona qui disdigna le veritate e per indulgentia cade a in le fraude. Assi, in omne tal affaires on debe exercitar e ration e diligentia; e si il ha un avertimento, illo essera sin acerbitate.

Le adulation, le adjutator del vitios, on debe evitar al maximo, proque illo es non solmente indigne de un amico ma anque de un homine libere, nam on vive de un maniera con un tyranno e de un altere maniera con un amico. Un precepto de Catone, un inter multes, es sage: "Inimicos acerbe ha plus valor que amicos dulce proque illes sovente dice le veritate; e amicos, nunquam."

E il anque es absurde que illes que on preveni non tolera tal vexationes e se adhera a lo que illes debe evitar; nam illes non se afflige proque illes ha peccate ma solmente proque illes ha essite prevenite. Al contrario, illes debe regrettar lor peccatos e prender gaudio quando on les corrige.


Usus amicitiae

Est varius et multiplex usus amicitiae, quae multas causas suspicionum offensionumque dare potest, quas tum evitare, tum elevare, tum ferre sapientis est.

Una illa subeunda offensio est, si utilitas in amicitia et fides est retinenda; nam et monendi amici saepe sunt et obiurgandi; et haec accipienda amice cum benevole fiunt.

Molesta est veritas si quidem ex ea nascitur odium, quod est venenum amicitiae; sed obsequium multo molestius, quod peccatis indulgens praecipitem amicum ire sinit.

Maxima autem culpa est in eo qui et veritatem aspernatur et in fraudem obsequio impellitur. Omne igitur hac in re habenda rati et diligentia est; et si monitio acerbitate, deinde si obiurgatio contumelia carebit.

Sed assentatio, vitiorum adiutrix, maxime vitanda est, quae non modo non amico, sed ne libero quidem digna est. Aliter enim cum tyranno, aliter cum amico vivitur. Scitum est enim illud Catonis, ut multa: "Melius de quiusdam acerbi inimici merentur quam ei qui amici dulces videnter; illi enim verum saepe dicunt, hi numquam."

Atque absurdum est, quod ei, qui monentur, eam molestiam non capiunt quam debent capere, et eum capiunt, qua debent vacare. Non enim anguntur quod peccaverunt, sed quod obiurgantur, moleste ferunt; nam contra opportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere.

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